PRACTICE Filling out these diagrams for the final exam:
answers can be found in the second document







= =

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Vocabulary


roots- The base of a plant which takes in water and nutrients from the soil.

stem- The middle part of plant that connects parts such as the pistil and stigma to the roots.
leaves. The stem contains vascular tissue to help transport important materials, such as oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and sugar.

flowers- An often good-smelling, colorful plant that goes throught photosynthesis and is pollinated by other flowers. The flowers are responsible for the reproduction in a plant.

osmosis- The passage of a water through a semi-permeable membrane from a higher to lower concentration of water. The kidney bean that sits over night in water takes water in and expands the next day. This is because there is lots of water outside of the bean and no water inside the bean. The water traveled from a higher to lower concentration. In the celery lab, the water travels up through the Xylem to the leaves through osmosis during the process of transpiration. In the osmosis egg lab, we put water surrounding the egg, and water began to fill the egg and increased its width. When karo syrup was put on the outside of the egg, water traveled outside the egg and the membrane decreased in width on the next day.

vascular tissue- In the stem of the plant, the vascular tissue moves important materials to each cell of the plant. This is very similar to a circulatory system. The vascular tissue is made of both the xylem and the phloem.

xylem- Moves WATER UP through the plant.

phloem- Moves SUGAR DOWN through the plant.

Up the Xylem, Down the Phloem

photosynthesis-


6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy >>> C6H12O6 + 6O2


photosynthesis1.jpg



cellular respiration-the process in living organisms of taking in oxygen and sugar from the surroundings and giving out carbon dioxide, water, and usable energy.


cellrsesp1.jpg


chlorophyll- A group of green pigments found in plants. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplast of a plant cell. This is where photosynthesis takes place.



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stomate- Plant structure that regulates how much water is released from the plant. The stomate lets in carbon dioxide and releases oxygen and water into the atmosphere.

transpiration- The process where water travels through the ground to the roots to the xylem and out the leaves to the atmosphere. Transpiration is "evaporation" through a plant in the water cycle.

light energy- Energy given from the sun to sustain life. This energy spreads through the ecosystem and is a model for domino causality.

carbon dioxide- A colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO2, formed during respiration, combustion, and organic decomposition.
Carbon Dioxide is an example of a compound. The elements carbon and oxygen are bonded with a covalent bond (sharing electrons) Carbon Dioxide is an important part of the Carbon Cycle in our garden and every ecosystem.

oxygen- O2- An element that allows that continuation of life. Oxygen Gas is a compound. Two elements of oxygen are bonded together by a covalent bond. Oxygen is a product in the process of photosynthesis and a reactant in the process of cellular respiration.

sugar- crystalline substances, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose[
Sugar is an example of a compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Sugar is a product of the process of photosynthesis and a reactant in the process of cellular respiration.

water- water is in the process of helping the plants grow and in the system of photosynthesis. Water travels through the plant through the process of transpiration, which is an important part of the water cycle. Water is a compound that is made of two different elements, oxygen and hydrogen. Water is regulated by the plant with the both the waxy cuticle and the stomate. The waxy cuticle on the upper side of the leaf makes sure excess water does not leave the plant. The guard cells of the stomate underneath the leaf opens and closes allowing water exit the plant.

petal- colored part of the flower that attracts insects and birds by their bright colors and smells during the process of pollination.

sepal- the two leaves on the flower that are attached under the flower petal.. The sepal protects the flower before it blooms.

pollen grain- each pollen grain contains a male sperm cell that travels from one flower to another by wind, insects, water. The pollen grain will attach itself to the stigma during pollination. Then a pollen grain will travel down a pollen tube in the style of the pistil. The pollen grain travels to the ovary where it finds and ovule and fertilizes the egg.

anther- top part of the stamen that produces pollen. In the lab, the powder that spilled from the anther over your hands and the petals were pollen grains.

filament- stalk of the stamen that bears the anther. The filament lifts the pollen grains and the anther so they are more likely to make the trip to another plant.

stigma- Top part of the pistil upon which pollen lands and pollinates.

style- the stalk of the pistil that connects the stigma to the ovary. This is where you will find the pollen tube during fertilization.

ovary- Base part of the pistil that bears ovules and develops in to fruit

ovule- small egg/seed

pollination- transfer pollen from the anther, pollen grain, stigma
water insects wind

fertilization- pollen, pollen tube, egg, seed
this process takes place in the ovary and produces a seed.

seed dispersal-is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant

germination- the process of which the growth of a seed begins. A seed will come out of dormancy with the right amount of water and temperature. Think of the bean plant experiment in a cup.

embryo-early stage of growth of a plant. The embryo of a bean plant is located between the two cotyledons.

cotyledon- The embryo is atached to the cotyledon. The cotyledon contains energy for the plant to germinate and grow, as there may not be any sunlight deep inside the soil or ground.

hillum, micropyle, seed coat- is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat

epicotyl, hypocotyl, radicle- These structures are all a part of the embryo - that will eventually grow to become a plant. Epicotyl - becomes the leaves, Hypocotyl -becomes the stem, Radicle - becomes the roots.

dormancy -when something is not physically living and is waiting for the right conditions to grow Ex. deciduous trees are dormant in the winter and lose their leaves. Tulip bulbs planted in the ground are dormant until the right amount of water and temperature occurs in the spring. Kidney beans in the bag at the grocery store are dormant, but when soaked overnight will begin to germinate. Another example is a dormantDormant volcano.

perennial bulbs
February blooms- Snowdrop
March blooms- Crocus, Squill, Glory in the Snow
April blooms- Grape Hyacinth, Squill, Glory in the Snow, Tulip, Daffodil


Questions

Multiple Choice

1. In our celery lab, which tissues were we studying when we watched color rise

up the celery stalk
A. phloem C. stems
B. roots D. xylem
2. In what part of the plant would you find the greatest number of chloroplasts?
A. stem C. leaves
B. cambrium D. roots
3. Each of the following is a fruit except a
A. potato C. squash
B. tomato D. strawberry
4. The bean plant in the dishwasher grew the tallest. This data helps to show is NOT an important variable for
germination of a bean plant.
A light C. water
B.soil D. temperature
5. This blue flower blooms in late march and the petals droop downwards
A. Glory-in-the-Snow C) Grape Hyacynth
B. Blue squill D) blue Iris
6. The part of the flower that you would find a pollen tube
A. stigma C. style
B. ovary D. stamen
7. The thickened part of the ovary wall that holds the fertilized seed is the
A. petal C. fruit
B. anther
8. The parts of the flower most involved with attracting pollinators are the
A. pistils C. sepals
B. seeds D. petals


Short answer

1. Plants do not have muscles to move from place to place. What are ways that plants can travel over land or water?

Answer: A way a plant can move from place to place is from the wind. Also if it moves in the water the water current can move it that way.
2. Describe three ways seeds can be dispersed? What is the advantage to seed dispersal?
Answer: Plant seeds are dispersed from the Stigma (Male reproductive organ) and lands and pollinates on a pistil (Female reproductive organ). Three ways this pollination can occur include wind, animals/insects, and water. The advantage to seed dispersal is that we do not have to monitor ceratin plants and thier growth in an area but instead let plats pollinate each otheror self pollinate.


3. fill in the table below:
Place the flower blooms in the correct month - tulip, daffodil, snowdrop, blue squill, glory-in-the-snow, grape hyacinth


Answer:
February
Early March
Late March
April
Snowdrop
Crocus
Squill
Squill




Glory in the Snow
Glory in the Snow






Tulip






Daffodil






Grape Hyacinth

4. How does a kidney bean or a tulip bulb come out of dormancy?
Answer: The tulip bulb comes out of dormancy by the power of sun (temperature) and the moisture in the soil. Plants are triggered by day length, so so bloom in early spring (snowdrops), while others bloom in late spring (grape hyacynth, peony, iris)




5. Explain the process of transpiration in a plant.
Answer: water travels through the plant through the roots, xylem, leaves, and stomate back into the atmosphere. There is lots of water in the ground. Water can return back to the air in the form of a gas by either evaporation or transpiration. Transpiration is like "evaporation" through a plant. In the stream, many times too much water runoff causes flooding which erodes the river bank and pollutes the stream. Plantings around the bank of a stream help to take some of that excess water and return the water to the atmosphere - avoiding flooding. As we have put more plantings in the gardens on campus, more water will return to the atmosphere by transpiration rather than flooding the soil in our gardens. Our plants in the lower school learning garden have reduced the amount of flooding over the years.




6. The hypocotyl located in the embryo will eventually become what part of the growing plant?

​ Answer: the hypocotyl will eventually grow to become the stem of the plant. The stem contains vascular tissue - the xylem and phloem of the plant.

7. Stomata are found in the leaves of the plant. What are their jobs?
Answer: Stomata/Stomates are found on leaves of a plant to perform thier job by regulating how much water is released to the enviroment. Stomates also allow carbon dioxide to enter the leaf for photosynthesis and release oxygen into the atmosphere.

leafXsection.png

external image stomata.jpg
We saw stomates on the electron microscope on the flower petal? Why were they located on the flower petal?
Near the viens on the petal.



8. What structures carry water up to the leaves of the plant?
The Vascular Tissue called the XYLEM transports WATER up to the leaves in the plant



9. What part of the plant supplies the food and energy for the plant to survive?
The Part of a plant that supplies the energy and food are the Leaves where photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast of the plant cell. There is a misconception that the roots supply Food, but the Roots actually supply the plant with WATER and important Minerals from the SOIL.

10. What are three different ways that a flower can pollinate.

-Wind
-Insect/Animals
-Water

11. Draw all the parts of the flower (for example, the Emperor Red Tulip) and label all the parts below: ( Look at the quiz we took on this in April)
flower_parts.gif




12. Draw all the important parts of a kidney bean and label all the parts below:



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A) epicotyl - leaves B) seed coat C) cotyledon- stores energy for the plant D) hypocotyl - stem E) radicle -roots
Parts A, D, and E are all parts of the embryo that will become a plant
Essay Questions
1. Explain in the roles of the following structures during photosynthesis :
stomates, chloroplast, chlorophyll, xylem, phloem, and roots
2. How do flowers produce seeds? Name and describe the four major steps in the correct order.
Flowers produce seeds by these four major steps. Pollination, Fertizlation, Seed Dispersal, and Germination. Pollination= anther-pollen grain- stigma
fertilization = Pollen, Pollen tube, egg, seed Seed Dispersal= Wind, water, animals Germination= Seed-Plant
3. How does a water molecule travel from the soil up to the leaves and out to the air. Explain what structures are involved in the process of transpiration.














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Water enters the watershed as rain and falls to the ground. Water is absorbed in the ground and is taken in through the roots by the process of osmosis and capillary action. The water travels up to the stem of the plant. In the stem, it travels in the Vascular Tissue in the plant. Water specifically travels up the Xylem and to the leaves.

In the Leaves the water then becomes a part of the process called photosynthesis. Water and Carbon Dioxide enter the chloraplast inside the plant cell. With the help of light, a chemical reaction takes place. (Domino Causality) The products of photosynthesis are both Oxygen and Sugar. Excess water leaves the plants and returns to the atmosphere through the stomata underneath the leaf of the plant. The waxy cuticle on the top layer of the leaf keeps the plant from losing too much water.

The water returns to the atomsphere. This is a part of the Water Cycle. This process of the water traveling through the plant to the atmosphere is a part of Cyclic Causality. When we have lots of concrete and roads, there is lots of water runoff that increases damage from erosion. Some of the erosion can be avoided by planting more plants in the community to return the excess water back into the atomsphere.



9. What part of the plant supplies the food and energy for the plant to survive?

The Leaves of the plant. This is where PHOTOSYNTHESIS takes place. Carbon dioxide reacts with water and light inside the chloroplast of an animals cell. These reactants help to produce the products Oxygen and Sugar (glucose). The Food web spreads this chemical energy in a straight line up the food chain.

the ROOTS do NOT supply food to the plant. The roots supply water and important nutrients to the plant. Some of those nutrients would include nitrogen from the soil.



10. What are three different ways that a flower can pollinate.

butterfly, bee, hummingbird, wind

(cross-pollination and self-pollination) see the enotes in your binder



Multiple Choice

1. On Day 3 in the Osmosis Lab, the water traveled from a higher concentration to lower concentration. As a result, the egg _ .
A) stayed the same size, since the egg shell was being broken down
B) increased in size traveling from the inside to the outside of the egg
C) increased in size traveling from the outside to the inside of the egg
D) shrunk in size traveling from the inside to the outside of the egg
.

_2. Calculate the % of 20 ml of soil (15 ml sand, 3 mL silt, and 2 ml clay)
A) 15 % sand, 30% silt, 20 % clay
B) 50 % sand, 30% silt, 20% caly
C) 75 % sand, 10% silt, 15% clay
D) 75% sand, 15% silt, 10% clay

_ 3. A following soil type would be best for retaining water in the soil?
A) 80% sand, 10% silt, 10% clay
B) 50 % sand, 30% silt, 20% clay
C) 75 % sand, 10% silt, 15% clay
D) 75% sand, 15% silt, 10% clay



4. The plant gets its energy from the following:
A) soil
B) roots
C) leaves
D) flowers


5. What is the main function of the cotyledon in the kidney bean plant?
A) to give plenty of water for the embryo to grow
B) to later become the leaves of the plant
C) to fasten into the ground and become the roots
D) to give plenty of energy for the embryo to grow

6. When they collect nectar from flowers, bees also transport
A) pistils from flower to flower B) seeds from flower to flower
C) pollen from flower to flower D) nutrients from flower to flower